Depending upon objectives and level of intervention, either diagnostic or imaginative literature is employed.If didactic literature is utilized, the objective is generally to facilitate a change within the individual through a more cognitive understanding of self. The literature is instructional and educational, such as handbooks, documents or how to books. Subjects that may be included are child rearing, marriage and sex, coping with stress, relaxation and meditation.
Imaginative literature refers to the presentation of human behavior in a dramatic manner. This category includes novels, short stories, and plays.The theoretical base postulates a relationship between personality and vicarious experience. The reader is simultaneously involved and detached from the story, as is true in the vicarious situation. In psychoanalytic terms, the process may be explained as paralleling the primary phases of psychotherapy: identification, catharsis,and insight.
There is no one particular manner of applying Bibliotherapy in the treatment situation.For example, specific literature can be recommended or “prescribed” by the therapist for reading between sessions and discussed subsequently,or the actual reading may take place in a group session and serve as a springboard for personal disclosure, or the therapist may read a story as an adjunct to a play therapy session. Bibliotherapy has been viewed both as a major technique as well as an adjunct to various other therapeutic means.
No explicit methodology exists for the selection of appropriate reading materials. There are bibliographies that list suggested literature for use in therapy; however, it is most important that the therapist know not only the patient but also be familiar with and appreciate literature.
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