Guilt means a rupture of the dialogical relationship, an injury of the common existential order, and as such must be repaired by again  entering into dialogue with that person or with the world. It is in the  real guilt of the person who has not responded to the legitimate claim  and address of  the world that the possibility of transformation and healing lies; for the repression of guilt and the neuroses that result from this repression are not merely psychological phenomena but real  events between men. The therapist helps the patient become aware of   himself in general, and of his responsibility in particular, through  playing the part both of confidant and big brother. He gives the  neurotic the understanding that the world has denied him and makes it more and more possible for him to step out of his self-imprisonment into a genuine relation with the analyst. To do this he must avoid both   the temptation of dealing with the patient as an  object and the intimacy of a private I-Thou relationship with him. The roots of  the      neurosis lie both in the society’s rejection and nonconfirmation of   the  patient and in the patient’s closing himself off  from the world.

Consequently, the analyst must change at some point from the  consellor to the person who puts before the patient the claim of the  world. He must help him resume that real dialogue with the  community that can only take place in the community itself. The patient becomes whole in order that he may concern himself with the world and be at once responsible for himself and in responsible  relationship with his community. The therapist embodies for the patient a loving inclination of the world that seeks to restore the latter’s dispirited and mistrustful self to a new dialogical meeting  with  the forces of nature and history. Equality of respect is attained not      by the insistence on a complete mutuality of  situation, as Rogers   maintains, but by the recognition of the betweenness itself  as the  common concern that each of them share and on which each of  them work. Only this attitude enables the therapist to answer both for the  patient and for the world, to risk personal commitment, even to the neurotic self-entanglement of  the patient,and to face with the patient the cure’s often unexpected completion.


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