Recurrent depressions are sometimes called ” unipolar depressions,” since they have only one pole-the depressed side. In contrast , ” bipolar depressions” have two poles – highs and lows . A person may go down into a deep depression, and then at other times may suddenly develop an abnormal and potentially dangerous mood elevation. The bipolar disorder has also been called manic – depressive illness because it swings from mania to depression and back again.

There are two kinds of abnormal mood elevations which differ in severity . Sever mood elevations are called manic episodes or mania. They can be extremely serious and often require hospitalization. Milder mood elevations are called hypomanic episodes, or hypomania.

Manic episodes usually develop rather unexpectedly in individuals who were quite normal before the episode began.bThe symptoms are just the opposite of the symptoms of depression . Instead of feelingsad, they feel joyous . Instead of suffering from a loss of self-esteem, they enjoy unlimited self-esteem , and believe they can achieve anything . They suddenly feel brilliant, alert , creative , and euphoric , a fountain of energy and ideas. They feel so good that they cannot accept the idea that there may be something wrong or that they need treatment.


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